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Bachelor and master degrees

To receive a bachelor's or master's degree, all required exams must be passed and certified.

In addition to the compulsory courses – which differ from one institution to the other – one or two language exams are also required. Following this, the degree is obtained by writing and defending a thesis within the framework of a state exam.


PhD degrees

The present system has been operational for only a few years – in practice it is similar to the structure of most European and American PhD programmes. The only officially accepted doctoral degree is conferred by universities after the PhD candidate has completed any and all mandatory courses and passed the exams of the accredited higher education institution. One can obtain the degree only after the dissertation has been written and defended.